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Goodbye, Mr. Chips (1939)

downloadGoodbye, Mr. Chips isn’t precisely a Christmas film, but since I read and reviewed the book recently and since it does feature a Christmas scene and the entire film glows with warmth and kindness, it seems appropriate to review it during the holidays.

James Hilton’s novella Goodbye, Mr. Chips really made an impression on me with its intermix of sentiment, chivalry, tragedy and ordinariness. It’s a touching story and I had read that the film was equally touching. And accounting for the usual differences between the printed word and visual cinema, I was impressed at how close the movie was to the novella, not so much in events, but in tone.

Robert Donat plays Mr. Chipping from the time when he first comes to Brookfield Public School as a young man in 1870 to when he dies in 1933, having given his whole life to Brookfield, lived through every war from the Boer War to WWI and seen three monarchs, from Queen Victoria to King Edward VII to King George V. But in the midst of it all, Brookfield remains essentially the same. The boy’s clothes change, the topic of conversation changes, but the boys retain their essential character. Child actor Terry Kilburn even plays four generations of Colleys, who all attend Brookfield and interact with Chipping in some way or other (one of the Colley boys grows up to be played by John Mills).

Blink and you’ll actually miss Donat playing his own age. For most of the film he’s in make-up and makes a very creditable middle-aged and elderly man. When he first comes to Brookfield, he is full of ambition and trepidation, but he’s not comfortable interacting with the boys, or really anyone. He’s shy and becomes established in his character as a bit of a dry stick in the mud.

Mr. Chipping introduces his wife to some of the boys - all she has to do is smile and they are lost

Mr. Chipping introduces his wife to some of the boys – all she has to do is smile and they are lost

But after being passed over as head of one of the boy’s dormitories, he is resigned to his fate as a partial outsider who doesn’t quite belong. His friend and fellow teacher, Max Staeffel (Paul Henreid) coaxes him into taking a walking tour of Europe. Completely unexpectedly, he meets and falls in love with Katherine Ellis (Greer Garson), a young woman on a biking holiday with her friend. He is captivated and she charmed by his innate chivalry and kindness….and a lurking sense of humor that he doesn’t often show.

Greer Garson absolutely sparkles in her American screen debut, which comes in the middle of the film and doesn’t last long, but she still makes a big impression. No wonder it launched her as a star. Her warmth, her energy; she is the perfect actress to play the woman who changes Chipping’s life by drawing him out and helping him to show the man he really is inside.

Most movies are not particularly good at portraying shy people sympathetically, but Goodbye, Mr. Chips is somewhat unique in putting a shy man at the center of the story. Mr. Chipping is shy, not reserved, and Katherine sees that. She makes a comment to her friend that she always felt sorry for shy people, because they must be lonely. Shy people often start with the assumption that people don’t really want to talk to them or are not interested in them, and it can cause them to feel isolated as a result. But Katherine changes everything by loving him, Mr. Chipping, as he is. By learning that he can be loved, he learns he can give it to other people, though without changing his fundamental nature. But it all happens because Katherine takes the time to see the real man beneath the surface and to bring it out.

One of my favorite scenes is when Chipping brings his wife to Brookfield to meet his fellow teachers. When they hear he is married, they assume she must be a sad sack of a woman and are completely bowled over when Chipping enters with Greer Garson. All she has to do is smile and they are falling all over themselves to be solicitous. Chipping’s shy pride in her and her own pride in him and his profession makes the scene entirely adorable and sweet and one can’t help but smile along.

chips_2207209b1Robert Donat beat out Clarke Gable for the Oscar for Best Actor, and now that I can finally make a comparison I can see why he won. Donat exhibits the full range of emotions, from love to loss, to understanding, sorrow, sympathy, humor, embarrassment, shyness. He is never anything less than compelling and he really brings out the internal goodness of the man, whilst not stinting on his eccentricities, but not making him a caricature, either.

The movie is definitely more nostalgic than the novella, which is more strongly colored by the events of WWI. But coming out as it did in 1939, when another war was looming, the film focuses more on looking back on another age, before WWI, a more humane and gentle age, before it was shattered by gas warfare and the machines of war. Mr. Chipping represents that age and although he sees a lot of tragedy, he also lives a full life, living his principles, not spectacularly, but in small things, giving his entire life for others simply by living.

 
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Posted by on December 21, 2015 in Movies

 

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Goodbye, Mr. Chips – James Hilton

2980After reading Lost Horizon, and now Goodbye, Mr. Chips, I’ve found I really like James Hilton as an author (he also wrote Random Harvest, which is next on my list). There is something gentle about his style, slightly sentimental, humorous, but also mournful. James Hilton is not nostalgic in the traditional sense of wishing blurry-eyed for the past. He has a pretty clear idea of the faults of the Victorian age – and that the age he is remembering led to WWI – so his books don’t veer off into excess nostalgia. He misses the upbringing of his youth, but partially because in comparison to the present (the 1930s, which seems to have filled him with well-rooted and ominous pessimism) the past appears remarkably optimistic and free-thinking.

Goodbye, Mr. Chips, published in 1934, is arranged as an episodic novella, with each chapter like snatches of memory, of the things that stood out most to Mr. Chipping, a school teacher at the boarding school of Brookfield where he taught for his entire life.

Mr. Chipping isn’t a particularly brilliant man and Brookfield isn’t one of the top boarding schools, but everything about the man and the school are solid, traditional, warmhearted and true. Mr. Chipping – known in fun as Mr. Chips – began teaching as a young man whose specialty is the classics. He was a bit stiff and not especially good at discipline, but he was content with his life. Then, when he thought he was long past ever falling in love, he meets a young woman, Katherine, half his age, who represents everything he was uncomfortable with. She is a modern woman, slightly socialist in her politics, rides bicycles alone and believes woman should have the vote.

But Katherine and Chips fall in love and marry and his life changes at Brookfield. She brings life and warmth into his life and he learns to relate to his students better. He doesn’t essentially change his character, but he is broadened and she helps him think outside of his usual traditional confines and it gives him courage later to make a stand when he needs to. But after only two years of extreme happiness, she dies in childbirth, leaving him devastated with grief.

But although Katherine only occupies a few chapters in the novella, her influence is far reaching. Her marriage to Chips was the defining moment in his life and he always remembers it. Later, he reflects sadly that there is no one left at Brookfield who remembers his wife. Most of the children assume he was a bachelor, though he does have one touching encounter with a young man who did remember her warmly and what an impression she made on his life. He and Chips talk about her, only for Chips to learn later that the young man dies at Passchendaele during WWI.

Greer Garson and Robert Donat in the 1939 Goodbye, Mr. Chips

Greer Garson and Robert Donat in the 1939 Goodbye, Mr. Chips

World War I is the overhanging tragedy of the entire novella. James Hilton talks in the introduction and afterward of the Readers Digest edition of Goodbye, Mr. Chips about the impact it made on him. He just missed entering the war, which ended as he was being called up from school, but the world was never the same again and all his books seem to reflect this (Lost Horizon also lies suspended between  WWI and fear of future calamity, both economic, moral and political). Chips is constantly hearing of former pupils who died at the war. He even courageously, though quietly, calls attention to the death of a former teacher at Brookfield, who died fighting for the German army.

It is also during WWI that Chips has his greatest moment. Before the war started, he retired and settled in a boarding house just across the street from the school, where he could keep a hand in, get to know the new students and generally be a benevolent presence. But after WWI begins, teachers leave to fight, students die, rations are in affect and the headmaster asks Chips if he could possibly come out of retirement to help him. Chips agrees and when the headmaster dies, Chips is made acting headmaster for the duration of war, even teaching a lesson during a Zeppelin bombing near the school. And when the war is over, he retires again, feeling that the moment for his usefulness is past.

One of the things I love about Chips – and what possibly made the book such a success, especially in America – is his attitude towards people. He humbly takes people as they are, not assuming that he is anything extraordinary, either. There is no condescension, disdain, or even much dislike of others. He seems to genuinely like people. It is endearing. So often, characters in books and movies seem to need to justify their intelligence at the expense of other characters. With Hilton, there is a remarkably understanding sense of common humanity. His characters never criticize or rag on anyone. Mr. Chipping is, above all, a kind and gentle man. One suspects it was the gentleness of his character that drew Katherine to him. He also has a sense of humor, which he especially knows how to use to make his students laugh.

The other overhanging theme of the book is Chips perfect memory of all the boys who have come through his school. He always took special care to know them by name and never forgets them. He loves to meet former students, talk over old times and find out what’s become of them. Often, he would see three generations of boys pass through his school. By the end of his life, people pity him (one person observing that it was a pity he never had any children) while he has a sense of a life well-lived. He had, he tries to say, many children.

goodbye-mr-chips-bd3e77b5-e1331500337877Hilton said that there were many teachers who inspired Mr. Chips, one of whom was his father, a fine teacher, a pacifist and a slightly unorthodox man. Brookfield was also something of a composite of many schools where he happily attended (where he says he wrote slightly revolutionary poetry without the slightest flap from anyone – he found the past almost more freethinking than the present – the 1930s).

Chips philosophy can be illustrated in an exchange with a young boy named Waveney, in the short story “Young Waveney,” where he gets in trouble for trying to buck the in-class system of a disliked teacher. Chips advice to him is as follows (in his later years, Chips halts and clears his throat a lot).

“But it’s a system, sir.”

“Systems, my boy, are hard things to fight. I warn you of that…but there’s one thing, Waveney…”

“Yes, sir?”

“Be – be kind, my boy.”

“Kind, sir?”

“Yes – umph – even when you’re fighting systems. Because there are – umph – human beings – behind those systems…”

Then Chips asks him what he’s going to be when he grows up and offers this observation.

“You’re going to be either – umph – a great man or – umph – a confounded nuisance…Or – umph – both…as so many of ’em are…Remember that.”

1969 musical of Goodbye, Mr. Chips, starring Peter O'Toole

1969 musical of Goodbye, Mr. Chips, starring Peter O’Toole

I also found this observation interesting, presented by Hilton in the afterwards of my copy of the book.

On Sundays we attended Chapel and heard sermons that preached brotherly love and forgiveness of our enemies. On Mondays we watched cadets on the football field bayoneting sacks with special aim for vital parts of the human body. I wondered endlessly whether Sunday’s or Monday’s behavior were the more hypocritical. I have changed my attitude since. That Brookfield declined to rationalize warfare into its code of ethics while at the same time sending its sons to fight and die seems to me now to have been pardonably illogical and creditably inconsistent. I can see that countries where high ideals are preached but not practiced are at least better off than countries in which low ideals are both preached and practiced.

He was, presumably, referring to Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. Hilton was not an idealist; he sounds more disillusioned, as if he can see life too clearly to have much faith in systems or ideologies or even the future improvement of society. His characters simply do the best they can in the circumstances they find themselves in, upheld by a sense of old fashioned duty.

 
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Posted by on December 2, 2015 in Books

 

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Waterloo Bridge (1940) – Waterloo Bridge Three Post Series # I

MV5BMTQ3NzUzOTc1N15BMl5BanBnXkFtZTgwMzcwMDkxMTE@__V1_SX214_When I first watched the movie Waterloo Bridge from 1940 with Vivien Leigh and Robert Taylor, my reaction was twofold; I reacted to the movie itself and to it as a remake of the 1931 Waterloo Bridge with Mae Clarke and directed by James Whale. I wanted to compare the movies, but I also thought that both movies deserved to be analyzed on their own, as individual movies, so I’ve decided to write a three post series about each movie and ending with a comparison of the two, with each post being released on a Monday: the 22nd (today), 29th, and the 6th of October.

The original story was a play by Robert E. Sherwood who is said to have based it loosely on events of his own life while he was stationed in London during WWI. The play was released in 1930 and was made into a movie only a year later, and was remade nine years after that when MGM bought the rights to the play from Universal (who made the first one) for the first movie Vivien Leigh made following her Oscar winning, fame-catapulting and fiery performance as Scarlet O’Hara the year before.

The 1940 Waterloo Bridge is by far the most beloved and well-known of the two movies. In fact, it is a highly beloved movie, period; inspiring real affection and not just liking in many of its viewers.

The movie opens with Roy Cronin (Robert Taylor), an officer in the British army during WWII, who must leave London and stops at Waterloo Bridge to remember another time, during the first world war, when he was young and first met the woman he loves on that same bridge. The rest of the movie is a flashback, and I don’t believe I am giving anything away when I say that you just know by the way the older Roy is reminiscing that the story does not end happily. The entire movie is drenched in gentle, yet tragic, remembrance; most of the movie taking place in the evening or at night, as if to say that the story was over even before it began. The song “Auld Lang Syne” is the theme of the movie, gently playing and foretelling the inevitable end of the story.

tumblr_ln0agaei1L1qiwalto1_500Except the end isn’t inevitable, really. And that’s why it is also so frustrating, because it is also about the inherent defeatism that we impose on ourselves, which defeat does not come from the outside world.

At the beginning of the flashback, Roy meets a group of ballerinas on their way to the theater and when there is an air raid, they all take refuge in a shelter, where he meets Myra Lester. He is instantly attracted, and she is too, but because he must leave the next day, she assumes that they will never meet again. However, that night he puts off a dinner with his colonel and goes to see her dance. Despite being forbidden to go out with him by the director of the ballet troupe, (Maria Ouspenskaya – highly memorable, as always), her much more worldly, though kind-hearted, friend Kitty (Virginia Field) arranges for Myra to meet Roy.

They have dinner and dance and talk and fall so deeply in love that you know no one else could ever do for these two people, no matter what happens. In many ways, though, they are quite different in their attitude towards life. He is eager to embrace life and to make life happen. He is brash, warm-hearted and confident and unwilling to ever let her get away from him, no matter if there is a war. She is young, very innocent and trusting, but with a much less aggressive attitude towards life. She assumes that life happens without her and when he says that she is a defeatist and that she could imagine never seeing him again, she agrees. She does not expect to see him again.

But when Roy is given unexpected leave for two days, he rushes to Myra’s house and proposes. It is so unexpected and magical and wonderful for Myra and it is as if she were infused with the same spirit as he is as they both rush to get married. It is too late in the day, however, for the reverend to marry them and before they can marry the next morning, Roy’s leave is canceled. Myra then misses the ballet performance because she had rushed off to say farewell to Roy, and she is fired along with Kitty, who stood up for her.

1822457,ZIPp_ZrhMBsQR1mNUksR_qhMKuWNa0vMvaD19GLii+37Y6ndrWVt3TSkakTsbdK0YDjzV1xJTYwtQa_3w1eR_w==And then Myra reads in the newspaper that Roy has died. After she falls ill and finally recovers, she realizes that Kitty has resorted to prostitution to pay the bills, including Myra’s medical ones. Myra doesn’t want the burden to fall on her friend and soon becomes a prostitute as well. But Roy was not really dead and he comes back completely unexpectedly to carry her off to meet his family without knowing what has transpired.

Spoiler Warning: the rest of this post contains spoilers.

This was quite interesting because the main obstacles in this film to the couple’s happiness are the war and her own defeatism. The war constantly drives them apart, but it is not insuperable. And unlike the first Waterloo Bridge film, there is no class or family prejudice against her. Everyone who meets her absolutely love her. The only thing that stands in her way is the fact that she is hiding from him that she worked as a prostitute during the time he was away and her own guilt over it. She is afraid to tell him and ultimately she is the one who decides that she is not worthy of him and his great family name; and because she can no longer imagine living without him, she walks in front of an army truck on Waterloo Bridge and kills herself.

Roy does find out, however, about her past. After she had left him he goes to Kitty and hears the whole story and what is so tragic is that it would not have mattered to him if she had been a prostitute or not. He loves her and he knows that she always loved him and all he wants is to be with her. It is so sad because she did not realize just how much he loved her and she never even gave him the chance to tell her. She makes her decision far to quickly and takes the irrevocable way out of the situation. Even if she had simply chosen to leave Roy – without killing herself – the simple act of choosing to live would probably have meant happiness for them both since Roy would have found her and they could have been happy.

c318b0edc8eeb1677b6701c95f56500dGoing along with the sense of defeatism is also the sense that Myra had that all her happiness was unreal. She asks several times in the movie if it is real, as if she can hardly believe that so much love could really come to her. The irony is that every time she says it, it is because of something Roy has done to make her happy. He works to make happiness. He is the one who puts off his duty so he can see her again and he is the one to propose so quickly. When he was presumed dead, he was really in a German prison camp and he escapes, returns to England, and brings her to his family home. She has trouble accepting what would essentially be a fairy tale ending for her; and one wonders if she never, in her heart, subconsciously believed in happy endings.

And in the end, in a tragic twist, it is now Roy who echoes Myra’s defeatism when he says that he knows he will never find her again. He says it the same night that she kills herself.

I still can’t decide whether or not I enjoyed it. It’s a very haunting film and the pathetic tragedy of the theme song, “Auld Lang Syne” stayed with me long after the movie was over. Of course, it didn’t help that afterwards I was reading about the tragic death in prison of Gavrilo Princip, who assassinated Franz Ferdinand of Austria – which sparked WWI – and about the love between Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophia and how their final thoughts before they died were of each other and about how their two sons were sent to Dachau in the late 1930s when they opposed the Nazi takeover of Austria. It put me in a regular, reflective funk about life, loss and suffering. And how the greatest tragedies in life – like WWI – are often self-inflicted.

However, there is a slight, hopeful note at the end of the movie, despite the tragedy. After Myra kills herself, we flash forward to WWII where Roy Cronin is remembering her. It is clear that, despite the tragedy, what he is really remembering is her and how much he loves her and how much he knows she loved him. Their love has endured, despite her death. It is another cosmic romance.

Vivien-Leigh-and-Robert-Taylor-in-Waterloo-Bridge-1940-4

 
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Posted by on September 22, 2014 in Drama, Romance

 

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